How to Maintain a Forklift

How to Maintain a Forklift
How can you make the life of a forklift longer because forklifts are the most used lifting and transporting equipment, both using industrial diesel fuel and using electrical energy.

The use of industrial diesel-fueled forklifts is higher than using electric power because the variations in capacity are large and the power is large.

Forklifts function to lift and move goods from one place to another with a large capacity so that the process of moving these goods will be fast.

In order to have a longer life for forklifts, especially forklifts fueled by industrial diesel, regardless of all the brands of forklift manufacturers and how big the capacity of the forklifts are and whether they have a permit for proper operation of heavy equipment (SILO) or not, it is necessary to maintain the forklift effectively.

Based on hour meter comparison data between forklifts and other heavy equipment such as loaders and excavators for a month, it was found that the number of forklift hour meters can be around 2 times that of other heavy equipment hour meters.

This shows that the use of forklifts is indeed high and the risk of damage is also high, especially if the forklift work area in the area contains B3 waste or many of its chemicals cause corrosive and abrasive forklift equipment.

In addition, the forklift work field where there are sharp objects such as iron or steel plates, it is necessary to modify forklift tires before being deployed to the field, one of which is replacing all forklift tires with solid tires so they don't puncture when tripped over sharp objects.

In order to prevent this high risk of damage, it is necessary to apply a strategy in the form of Preventive Maintenance in order to obtain a long service life for the forklift.

Preventive maintenance is a planned maintenance strategy every certain time interval or based on equipment usage parameters such as hour meters and kilometers.

Forklift maintenance aims to detect abnormalities in the equipment at an early stage and then repairs can be immediately carried out to prevent severe damage and repairs taking a long time, for example due to waiting for spare parts to indent.

Forklift preventive maintenance refers to standard manual book tools and conditions in the field, related to how hard the forklift's work field is.

Forklift preventive maintenance is divided into several sections based on the number of hour meters.

Preventive maintenance 200 hours

This is done when the forklift hour meter has reached 200 hours, calculated since the last preventive maintenance.

According to the manual book, replacement spare parts are filter assy, ​​kit elements, engine oil, accu air and greasing. All of these spare parts will be replaced in the next 200 hours, so it is necessary to back up spare parts well in advance.

Preventive maintenance 1200 hours

Maintenance during the forklift hour meter has reached 1200 hours, calculated since the previous 1200 hours of preventive maintenance.

This form of preventive maintenance is a multiple of 6 preventive maintenance times of 200 hours. According to the manual, replacement of spare parts is the same as preventive maintenance for 200 hours, including replacement of assy elements, gaskets, orings, transmission oil and hydraulic oil.

Preventive maintenance 2400 hours

Maintenance during the forklift hour meter has reached 2400 hours. This is a multiple of 2 times preventive maintenance 1200 hours.

Replacement of spare parts is the same as preventive maintenance for 1200 hours including replacement of the thermostat, gasket, belt and brake fluid.

Make sure that the replacement spare part is an original spare part, indicating that the part number matches the spare part recommended by the machine maker.

For each forklift brand, the part number has a different shape even though the components are the same, for example the air filter element part number will differ depending on the forklift brand.

There is the term equivalent part number, don't be fooled because the similar part number is not an original spare part but is made by a factory outside the forklift brand and belongs to the kw2 type of spare part and is not recommended.

How to care for forklifts above as a way to make forklift usage longer, but does not guarantee 100% because there are still several other factors that affect the life of forklifts including factors from forklift operators, terrain / forklift work areas as mentioned above and management consistency to want to provide spare parts. quality parts for forklift preventive maintenance activities including repairs.

Forklift operators must be truly experienced and have an Operations Permit (SIO) to prevent the risk of work accidents related to the use of forklifts. The SIO was obtained from the factory's external training institute organized by the Manpower and Transmigration Office.

In certain oil and gas industries (Chevron and others), in addition to SIO as a tool for operating forklifts, special oil and gas certificates regarding forklift operations are required.

In fact, this forklift operator often acts carelessly when operating a forklift and results in damage.

It often happens that there is also the thought/paradigm that forklift operators only have to step on the gas while matters of forklift cleanliness or light maintenance such as cleaning, lubricating and tightening according to the principle of autonomous maintenance tend to be ignored.

Here the supervisory role of the maintenance department and the production department work together to realize the principle of autonomous maintenance so that it can be applied to forklift maintenance by both heavy equipment mechanics and forklift operators.

Back to the issue of the field / operational work area of ​​the forklift.

In a sterile, dry, barrier-free work area and free of B3 waste, of course the condition of the forklift is better maintained, this will be different if the opposite place contains a lot of B3 waste, chemicals and sharp objects.

Based on the author's experience when implementing PM (Preventive Maintenance) for forklift maintenance at a B3 waste processing plant located in Majalengka, the implementation of Preventive Maintenance for forklifts must be highly disciplined, meaning that the implementation of forklift maintenance will definitely be carried out regardless of the constraints following the forklift maintenance schedule based on hour meter intervals.

The use of spare parts follows the procedure. However, damage still occurs due to the corrosive and abrasive effects of B3 waste chemicals that are lifted and transported. On average, the forklift engine dies down about 2 times a year and every day there is a forklift tire leak.

The solution is modified forklift tires, which are solid tires / blind tires / solid tires so that they don't leak when stepping on sharp objects.

Lastly is management's commitment from users, purchasing, finance and directors to always prioritize original spare parts compared to original / kw2 spare parts, even though the value is higher, in the long term this investment will break even and become an advantage.

In fact, this forklift operator often acts carelessly
Umar A
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