7 HACCP Principles

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is a system for identifying, evaluating and controlling significant hazards in the food production chain. HACCP can be applied at all stages of the food production process, including supporting industries such as the plastics and packaging industry.


There are many points contained in HACCP but on this occasion we will get to know the 7 principles of HACCP first:
  • HACCP Principle 1: Conduct Hazard Analysis
  • HACCP Principle 2: Determining CCP (Critical Control Point)
  • HACCP Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits
  • HACCP Principle 4: Determine Monitoring Procedures
  • HACCP Principle 5: Determine Corrective Actions
  • HACCP Principle 6: Determine Documentation
  • HACCP Principle 7: Determine Verification Procedures

HACCP Principle 1: Conduct Hazard Analysis

Carry out hazard identification analysis at each stage based on the flow diagram stages.

Note all hazards related to each process step, ingredients, product storage, distribution, serving preparation.

Next, carry out a hazard analysis (possible and real) based on safety concerns, not quality concerns, and brainstorm among team members

Examples of potential sources of danger are raw materials, buildings, machinery and equipment, process design, workers, environment, storage, transportation equipment.

So the completeness of this hazard analysis is after identifying the hazards in each process, then proceed to identifying the opportunity for each hazard to occur, identifying the level of risk for each hazard, determining the level of "significance" of each hazard and determining control measures.

Examples of biological hazard control measures are pasteurization, fermentation, acidification, salting, drying, cooling.

Examples of chemical hazard control measures are certification of analysis from suppliers, using food grade chemicals, antibiotic testing, controlling fertilizer use.

Examples of physical hazard control measures are magnetic traps, metal detectors, use of filters, use of plastic pallets.

HACCP Principle 2: Determining CCP (Critical Control Point)

Apply the HACCP decision tree method at each process step to determine which CCPs have hazards.

In this condition, consider modifying the product/process if control is needed or no control action is available.

HACCP Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits

Establishing critical limits is a dividing criterion between acceptable and unacceptable, safe and unsafe factors.

Establishing critical limits must be established for each CCP, must be justified, must be validated with internal research data or other reference data.

Examples of sources for determining critical limits are scientific journal data, advice from experts, data from company experiments, regulations, "best practices" based on company experience.

HACCP Principle 4: Determine Monitoring Procedures

This is monitoring each CCP so as to identify whether the CCP is still under control or identify problems before they occur.

The principle:
  • Compare CCP with critical limits
  • Must be able to find loss of control at CCP
  • Enough time to take corrective action
  • Critical parameter testing is carried out quickly, both physical, chemical and sensory testing.
Use analytical questions, for example what is monitored, when monitoring is carried out, frequency of monitoring, who monitors, where the monitoring is carried out, how to observe/visual test/measure.

HACCP Principle 5: Determining Corrective Actions

Determine corrective actions for deviations at each CCP and there must be corrective actions for each deviation from critical limits.

Corrective actions must ensure that the CCP is running effectively, including treatment of processes and products.

The following are 2 stages of corrective action:
  1. "Immediate Action" for the short term is to adjust the process so that CCP is truly controlled and product disposition.
  2. "Preventive Action" for the long term is by identifying the root of the problem, taking preventive action and revising the HACCP system if necessary.
HACCP Principle 6: Determine Documentation

Records are written evidence that the company has implemented the HACCP system according to standards and requirements. These notes include:
  • CCP monitoring activity records
  • Records deviations and related corrective actions
  • Verification record
  • Validation Notes
  • Changes to the HACCP system

HACCP Principle 7: Verification and Validation

Verification procedures to determine whether the HACCP system is running effectively by means of audits, procedure reviews, testing, random sampling and their frequency must be sufficient to ensure that the HACCP system is running effectively.

5 Verification procedure activities:
  1. Review the HACCP system
  2. HACCP Plan Validation
  3. Internal audit
  4. Product testing
  5. Review monitoring results
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